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Принципы дыхания

Принципы дыхания

Динамика дыхательного механизма

Существуют 3 характерные функции дыхания, движение ребер, грудины и диафрагмы. Одновременное действие этих трех движений является основой пранаямы, йоговского дыхания. Большинство из всех вариаций пранаямы выполняются посредством йоговского дыхания. Но поначалу невозможно осуществлять эти 3 одновременных движения без предварительной индивидуальной пошаговой практики. Поэтому перед освоением пранаямы рекомендуется обучиться постепенно вводить эти 3 функции, в одновременное действие в процессе периодов вдыхания и выдыхания.

Для начала следует путем тренировки отработать боковое расширение ребер в процессе цикла вдыхания при помощи межреберных мышц, с предельным заполнением объема легких. Во вторую очередь следует отработать движение грудины вперед и вверх при том же дыхательном обучении. Затем следует отработка движения диафрагмы, подъем и опускание живота при соответственном дыхании.

Когда все эти функции по отдельности хорошо натренированы, следующим шагом будет практика сведения всех трех форм воедино.

Тренировка всегда должна проводиться в одной из сидячих позиций. При этом следует принять меры, чтобы все относящиеся к делу формы позиции оставались неизменными и в процессе тренировки не возникало никаких судорог и напряжений, это должно выполняться в расслабленном состоянии. Практика должна начинаться с выдыхания, и затем следуют ритмичные формы дыхательных циклов. При вдыхании и выдыхании следует обращать внимание на дыхательный поток, он должен оставаться совершенно плавным и непрерывным, без прерываний и особых усилий для достижения согласованности в процессе дыхания. Переключение с выдыхания на вдыхание и обратно должно быть плавным перекатом движения с некоторой паузой, которую мы неосознанно делаем и в обычном дыхательном цикле.

В случае задержки дыхания, вариации, часто используемой в пранаяме, пауза между вдыханием и выдыханием удлиняется волевым усилием. Но прежде чем производить такую затянутую задержку дыхания, следует хорошо потренироваться в обычной форме дыхания, только с вдыханием и выдыханием. В противном случае для многих чуть более длительная задержка дыхания может оказаться до некоторой степени дискомфортной. Сначала потренируйте задержку дыхания после вдоха. Когда эта функция станет достаточно легкой для вас, попрактикуйте задержку дыхания в обратном варианте, между циклами выдоха и вдоха.

При исполнении практики пранаямы необходимо также принимать во внимание следующие аспекты. Пранаяму не следует выполнять, когда тело и разум находятся в состоянии возбуждения. В таких случаях сначала важно отдохнуть на протяжении какого-то времени, слегка прикройте глаза и понаблюдайте за своим нынешним ритмом дыхания, заметьте, как этот ритм медленно меняется со сравнительно высокой скорости дыхательной последовательности к более спокойному ее течению. В процессе дыхания и прослушивания приятной, негромкой музыки наше сознание приходит в спокойное, гармоничное состояние. Это является практикой сосредоточения для успокоения в нервных ситуациях и возвращения присутствия разума из внешнего мира, с фокусировкой внимания снова на нашей внутренней жизни. Правильность дыхания по пранаяме открывает в нас все соответствующие каналы для втекания энергии праны в тонких формах для астрального (эфирного) очищения. И это способствует нашему духовному просвещению.

Ранджит Сен Гупта

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