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Религиозные обряды и магические ритуалы

В бронзовом веке в Древнем Китае (2500 до н. э. — 200 н. э.) были достигнуты большие успехи в металлургии. Процесс плавки сопровождался всевозможными религиозными обрядами и магическими ритуалами изгнания злых духов. Китайцы твердо верили, что в изделиях из бронзы, например, мечах и сосудах, жили духи.

Именно в это время в странах Гималайского региона и были изготовлены первые поющие чаши; они были не круглыми, а скорее яйцевидными и напоминали по форме череп небольшого размера. Вместо «глазниц» на них были два острых выступа, а также имелся выступ на месте, где должна была бы находиться переносица. Тона этих выступов различались на треть тона. Китайцы интересовались астрологией, но не приписывали никакого практического значения планетам, в то время как в Древней Индии решения, касающиеся важных дел, принимались на основании расположения планет и других небесных тел.

В древних Ведах об индийской музыкальной форме, известной как рага, говорится, что она является отражением колебаний, вызываемых планетами и их движением. Ноты индийской шкалы звуков соответствуют планетам. На этой основе развилась тибетская астрология, ею пользуются также и в других странах Гималайского региона. Тибетская астрология, представляющая собой смесь китайских, индийских, древних шаманских верований, добуддистской религии Бон и многих других веяний, существует и по сей день.

Однако сведения о том, каким образом эти астрологические познания применимы к составу металла поющих чаш, или же к тому, как они в действительности используются жителями Гималаев, крайне скупы. Являются ли они обыкновенными сосудами для приготовления пищи или же представляют собой жертвенные сосуды? И каково, в таком случае, значение этих непостижимых звуков? Используются ли они для совершения иных, тайных обрядов в монастырях или во время церемоний, которые проводят жители гор и которые столь недоступны пониманию жителей Запада?

В тибетских буддистских монастырях для смягчения гнева сердитых богов применяются плоские, серебристого цвета чаши, именуемые Шонгами, которые наполняются драгоценностями или едой. Почему большинство выходцев из Тибета, живущих в западном мире, хранят такое молчание относительно всего, что касается поющих чаш? И почему некоторые авторы упоминают о связи чаш с семью священными металлами, а другие сомневаются в ее существовании? Когда пытаешься докопаться до сути этих проблем, складывается впечатление, что вплоть до настоящего времени этнографы, писатели и культурологи не обращали на них никакого внимания.

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